Stone Work

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Stone Work

Stonemasons use all types of natural stone: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary; while some also use artificial stone as well.

Igneous stones: Granite is one of the hardest stones, and requires such different techniques to sedimentary stones that it is virtually a separate trade. With great persistence, simple moldings can and have been carved into granite, for example in many Cornish churches and the city of Aberdeen. Generally, however, it is used for purposes that require its strength and durability, such as kerbstones, counter-tops, flooring, and breakwaters.

Metamorphic: Marble is a fine stone easily workable, that comes in various colors  mainly white. It has traditionally been used for carving statues, and for facing many Byzantine and Renaissance Italian buildings.

Sedimentary: Many of the world’s most famous buildings have been built of sedimentary stone, from Durham Cathedral to St Peter’s in Rome. There are two main types of sedimentary stone used in masonry work, limestones and sandstones.

Rubble Masonry: When roughly dressed stones are laid in a mortar the result is a stone rubble masonry.

Ashlar Masonry: Stone masonry using dressed (cut) stones is known as ashlar masonry.

Stone Veneer: Stone veneer is used as a protective and decorative covering for interior or exterior walls and surfaces. The veneer is typically 1 inch (2.54 cm) thick and must weigh less than 15 lb per square foot (73 kg m−2) so that no additional structural supports are required. The structural wall is put up first, and thin, flat stones are mortared onto the face of the wall. Metal tabs in the structural wall are mortared between the stones to tie everything together, to prevent the stonework from separating from the wall.

Slip form Stone-masonry: Slip-form stone-masonry is a method for making stone walls with the aid of form work to contain the rocks and mortar while keeping the walls straight. Short forms, up to two feet tall, are placed on both sides of the wall to serve as a guide for the stone work. Stones are placed inside the forms with the good faces against the form work. Concrete is poured behind the rocks. Rebar is added for strength, to make a wall that is approximately half reinforced concrete and half stonework. The wall can be faced with stone on one side or both sides.

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